Assyrians, Hittites, Firiks, Cappadocia Kingdom, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires have ruled in Cappadocia as from 3000 B.C. This region where the nature and history become integrated well is one of the finest examples in the world for integration of the civilization and difference. The fair chimney and the unique geological structure of Cappadocia formed by erosion of the tuffs that had spread around the region as a result of the explosions in the Erciyes Mountain approximately 30 million years ago by the flood waters descending from the valleys and slopes and the wind over time.
Thus, it will not be wrong to call the Erciyes Mountain as father of Cappadocia. While the geographical events formed the fair chimneys, the people living in that region within the historical period engraved houses and churches into these fair chimneys and created a living area which is common for them. Frescos in these places still transfer traces of the civilization for thousands of years to our day. The Cappadocia Region includes major centers such as Ürgüp, Göreme, Uç Hisar, Avanos, Zelve, and Derinkuyu that the visitors coming from the entire world enjoy to travel and see. Unique caves and historic sites in each of these regions are annually visited by more than 2 million tourists.